The relationship between genius and mental illness has long been the subject of romantic lore. None of us will ever know what creative output we are capable of if we let stereotypes such as the trope of the tortured creative genius get in the way of our intrinsic motivation to get out and work to get to work. The fact that the male lead, Reynolds (played by the incomparable Daniel Day-Lewis, who deserves far better than this), is a renowned dressmaker whose genius and passion cause him to be a rude, obsessively picky ingrate who spends the majority of his screen time treating every woman who dares to encounter him like his verbal punching bag. Geniuses are the monsters we make. While positivity, curiosity, and self-directedness, can all be personality traits, learning how to excel at these things is something we all can do. Tortured Lyrics: The Midnight Society / Is it the same? Van Gogh only took up painting in the last nine years of his life and in less than a decade he produced 900 paintings. It’s very real. Walter White gets to be revered as “badass” and “awesome” because he’s good at making meth and killing people, while Skyler gets to be the nagging bitch. The hard work, the trial and error, and the discipline that it takes to take an idea and make it work is not the result of a mind in mental distress. […] Well, I pitched it to an amazing site called PopLurker with the idea of expanding it, and they ACCEPTED! The Enlightenment was the first time the word create was explicitly credited to a human — albeit an extraordinary human such as DaVinci — source. This archetype of the tortured creative genius is dangerous because it not only implies that genius is a direct result of misery but creativity — the ability to create something that is both novel and useful — is inaccessible to those aren’t dealing with mental health issues or those who have a dogged, perennial urge to start drinking absinthe or slice off an ear (seriously, don’t do this). It was published last month, check it out here. She's shown that she can play a tortured young woman before, most notably in films like The Witch and Split, and it looks like she really gets to flex her dramatic muscles here. The myth is of the genius “tortured” by some internal struggle the rest of us are not smart enough to understand, so that the best we can do is step out of their way. so extreme that actress Anna Gunn released a New York Times op-ed about it? 2018-2020 Troublemakers Services, All Rights Reserved. My first instinct is that it’s a little too on the nose, but you can’t really have a conversation about a man’s abusive behavior being excused by talent or success without this hallmark example. They are more curious, more cognitively flexible, more open to new knowledge, and more willing to engage in non-traditional methods. ( Log Out /  We are a small collective of writers trying to make content that will make the internet a happier place. He doesn’t even look up as Molly runs off in tears, because he has that little regard for her feelings. No, because of his famed talent for solving crimes. Creativity is a cognitive process, and like all cognitive processes the more we train our minds to execute these processes the better we become at them. Perhaps I lack appreciation for dramatic cinema, but the last time I threw a tantrum about what someone cooked me for dinner was at the age of six. We’ve seen it in all works of fiction. The persperation from which genius is born does not come from misery, torture or, madness it comes from hard work and the intrinsic motivation that is a part of all of us. Whereas if some genius dressmaker was rude to me, I’d say “Fuck off and go make a dress.” or if a genius billionaire was rude to me, I’d say, “Go fuck your money, asshole.” But if I was standing with Sherlock and he told me what I had to eat last Tuesday, what time and how I masturbated today, and how much a fart by the way I stand, I would run out of there screaming too. So not only Feitan is a Complete Monster, Psycho for Hire who completely … Books? With all that in mind, hopefully The Queen's Gambit will live up to the promise of its intriguing trailer, and manage to avoid many of the tortured genius tropes that audiences have already seen a million times before. Now it’s obsolete. Books? Case in point: forensics professional Molly Hooper, who harbors an unfortunate crush on Sherlock. Quinn Hopp can be found on her blog, Twitter, and Instagram. The actual psychological torture Stanley Kubrick inflicted on Shelley Duvall in The Shining? However, this pales in comparison to the oft-forgotten scene in season two where Walt violently shoves Skyler against the refrigerator and tries to rape her, a moment aptly dubbed “The Forgotten Rape of Skyler White.”. One of the most important stereotypes to refute is that the creative genius is an insane, miserable, tortured, and forsaken, creature. The idea of the tortured creative genius is one we all know well. Sherlock’s defamatory behavior doesn’t end with Molly Hooper. The ‘difficult genius’ trope was always problematic. Please LIKE, COMMENT, and SHARE! Essentially the film is The Movie of this trope. [AUTHOR’S NOTE: For all intents and purposes, my discussion of Sherlock shall refer specifically to the modern BBC adaptation with Benedict Cumberbatch]. Yes, Phantom Thread is beautifully shot and scored. Skylar was berated so severely by the fandom that actress Anna Gunn […]. This got me thinking about how common this trope is at various levels of pop culture. I have no idea, but we can all be creative if we find the intrinsic motivation to do the hard work to make our ideas a reality. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The Conversation puts it best: “In reality, women stay in abusive relationships because they are physically, financially, or psychologically restricted or threatened. The Trope Of The Tortured Genius- English Literary Club Meet 0. He forces her to sign a contract about everything from when she’s allowed to drink to how many times a week she exercises, demands sex at all times, shows up unexpectedly at her place of work, and furiously blames her when she eventually becomes pregnant. male directors have exploited and tormented their actors on set. / None of the rays, the shit that I don't deserve / This shit was never okay / Look in Statement: PopLurker is not owned by a corporation. He frequently declares everyone he encounters, from BFF John Watson to random barkeeps, to be incompetent, slow-minded, and generally lesser than him. If a woman were to behave like that, she would be labeled a shrill harpy, but a successful man behaving like a toddler is another story. That qualifies, at the very least, as workplace harassment. One year in particular was his most creative. How DARE she not immediately throw her unwavering support behind him! "Tortured Genius" is an excerpt from the short film "Music For The Visually Impaired." He pitches a tantrum when his love interest, Alma (played by Vicky Krieps), butters her toast too loudly, screams his head off when she has the nerve to bring him a cup of tea, and makes her physically remove one of his dresses from the body of a passed-out woman whom he no longer deems “worthy” of his precious designs. Yet all behavior is immediately excused in the name of “art” or “brilliance,” because apparently a man being marginally skilled at something gives him a free pass on basic human decency, usually towards women. Oscar-winning movies and toxic masculinity. ( Log Out /  Two topics that have been the epicenter of media attention lately. And what does it say about how we view women in general? This mentality prevailed until the Renaissance when artists first signed their work — and by doing so they took ownership of their creative output. This is a trope that’s all too familiar: talented and/or successful man as a quixotic, tortured genius who lashes out and behaves erratically in the name of passion. We are meant to believe that his abusive behavior is simply an occupational hazard of his success, a minor personality difference to overcome. aptly dubbed “The Forgotten Rape of Skyler White.”, a laundry list of controlling and abusive behavior, PopLurker: THE STRANGE AND TORTURED GENIUS: DECONSTRUCTING A (TOXIC) TROPE | QUINN HOPP. Tortured Genius official fan page Creativity — and the ability to have so-called genius ideas of your own — is something that is inherent in all of us and something that cognitive science shows we can learn through overcoming common cognitive biases and refuting common stereotypes. Basic Trope: A character who looks like The Big Guy reveals himself to be exceptionally intelligent as well. He, in turn, treats her like something he found floating in a public toilet. Let me be clear: I love Breaking Bad and agree that it’s one of the greatest TV series of all time, but Walter White may be one of the biggest “tortured geniuses” I’ve ever seen. This means when we have a positive state of mind we can focus, retain our sense of autonomy and control, and thus be intrinsically motivated. It’s a tradition that spans the centuries, from Dürer’s ‘Melacholia’ We have a morbid fascination with the struggle of others and love art that is created as a product of pain. Research from the very recent past overwhelmingly shows one key trait among the most creative — intrinsic motivation. Thus, Van Gogh’s creative genius was not because of his mental illness, but in spite of it. ( Log Out /  Tortured writers Sylvia Plath and Virginia Woolf. If you like what you see here, you can follow PopLurker on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram! Born in Manchester, England, in August of 1785, De Quincey was a This was after the ear incident. When they share a once a year smoke, they discuss people as if they were a couple of super computers watching ants go about their day. check. Are you inside of my mind? TV? Van Gogh is not the only tortured creative genius whose mental illness is seen as the cause of his creative output and not its greatest adversary. This is domestic violence. There was something unique about that year, Van Gogh voluntarily committed himself to Saint-Rémy-de-Provence — a mental asylum. We’ve got it in shows such as Sherlock and The Big Bang Theory; in biopics, such as Steve Jobs; and in countless real-life articles about how male directors have exploited and tormented their actors on set. In order to do their best work, creators of all stripes need to be in an environment where their talent and technique can thrive and not be stifled by a mental illness. […], […] The main highlight of the year, though, was pitching an idea to an online magazine and getting PUBLI… […], […] written about Skylar White’s unjust hate before, so I’ll keep this short. Great Roman thinkers, Seneca the Younger and Petronius. : When something pretty mundane (or even harmless) is treated as a Fate Worse than Death. It seems almost redundant to bring up Fifty Shades of Grey. Link here THE STRANGE AND TORTURED GENIUS: DECONSTRUCTING A (TOXIC) TROPE Oscar-winning movies and toxic masculinity. We’ve seen it in all works of fiction. From May of 1889 to May 1990 Van Gogh produced 150 paintings which was about one-sixth of his creative output. You're pretty happy being an island. Like Van Gogh, their lowest points did not serve as an impetus for or come in the middle of their creative processes, but these lowest moments robbed them of their greatest joy — their ability to work. When you are intrinsically motivated to do something you could easily lose your sense of time because you are so engaged with it or would do something for free instead of being paid. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. It's an idea deeply embedded in our culture: the artist, musician, poet, novelist or comedian who excels in his or her field, but is tormented by inner demons. I submitted a piece to PopLurker on April 10, 2018. yup. Vincent Van Gogh is the archetype of the tortured creative genius. The source of my irritation? Like Alma in Phantom Thread, Skyler was expected to quietly accept her role as the collateral damage of a tortured genius, and was vilified by the fandom when she refused. Much like Ana in Fifty Shades of Grey, Alma envisions her perfect future with Reynolds, completely emulating the previously mentioned “one day he will change” mentality of an abuse victim. In “The Great Game” (season 1, episode 3), Molly introduces her new boyfriend (who, unbeknownst to the audience, is actually criminal mastermind Jim Moriarty). Sure, I love the show, but I don’t consider Sherlock and Mycroft to be that human anyway, They don’t consider themselves that way either. There are in-depth analyses and 15-minute YouTube video tributes plotting out every minute of Walter White’s descent into malice. I understand and appreciate Walt’s transition into “evil” as a vital element of Breaking Bad, but the fact that his increasingly immoral acts are glorified as a transformation emphasize my point. This attempt to create a more positive environment gave him the intrinsic motivation that he needed to create on a genius level. After this event, Van Gogh knew that he had to do something about “the sadness that will last forever.” By committing himself, he acknowledged that his mental illness was taking away the one thing that mattered to him and the only thing that motivated him — painting. The Tortured is a 2010 Canadian-American horror-thriller film directed by Robert Lieberman, written by Marek Posival, and starring Erika Christensen, Jesse Metcalfe, Fulvio Cecere, and Bill Moseley. Creativity and mental illness have been connected over time. … You are smart. F or years the ‘tortured genius’ trope has been one that is attributed to many creatives. ( Log Out /  This behavior has led many scholars to believe that his mental illness was the cause of his creative genius. In fact, creators and creative geniuses do their best work when they are in a very different state. From wild-eyed professors to obsessive and socially inept detectives to, perhaps the most prevalent variation of all, the ‘tortured artist’: the brilliant and radical painter, composer, or writer pursued by dark and unrelenting demons. The trope of the mad genius is a familiar one. Check out Uprooted by Naomi Novak, a story about an angry wizard, stuck in his ways who treats his seventeen year old female apprentice like trash while throwing things and screaming at her. Speaking of “shrill harpy,” does anyone remember when hatred of Breaking Bad’s Skyler White became so extreme that actress Anna Gunn released a New York Times op-ed about it? Anything but That! His struggle with depression was not only seen in his letters and his writings, but also in his ill-advised decisions to cut off his ear and take his own life. Why does media portray abuse as an unavoidable side effect or occupational hazard of a man’s talent or success, and all the women who suffer in his wake as collateral damage? Mathematical genius? Totally excusable. The psychological side effects are worse than any good they do for me. Their amazing minds often come with other hurdles to overcome or make them outcasts in society. Other tropes about torture. Most people are able to be content with mediocrity. Plot. His insatiable need to isolate and control Ana is treated like a bad habit, the same as nail-biting or forgetting to take out the trash. She endures the torment because she believes that one day, he will change, and the abuse she experiences is a consequence of his brilliance. FX’s new biographical drama Fosse/Verdon explores the romantic and creative partnership between musical theater director Bob Fosse (Sam Rockwell) and … Woolf, Munch, and Fitzgerald and many others all had their creativity linked to their suffering. Girl Genius is a webcomic (originally a print series) by Phil and Kaja Foglio, which has become one of the classics of the Steampunk (called Gaslamp Fantasy by the creators) genre.. Most people can’t see solutions a genius would consider obvious. Tortured Genius by reesemyers | created - 19 Dec 2014 | updated - 19 Dec 2014 | Public Refine See titles to watch instantly, titles you haven't rated, etc. The trope of the tortured creative genius has persisted since Plato proposed banning poetry —long enough to seem like more than mere coincidence. During their separation in season three, Walt moves back into the house against Skyler’s will, refuses to leave when she calls the police, and unexpectedly shows up at Skyler’s workplace to threaten her boss. Those who are intrinsically motivated are in a practically continuous state of curiosity. Where does the trope of the tortured genius film director originate? If you’re able to, please contribute so we can continue making more hilarious content! 300 likes. What the word genius implies is remarkable, but in the context of those who history considers “creative geniuses” we don’t let the word and all of the power that it entails stand alone. You're uniquely brilliant - and completely misunderstood. Badly. Being Tortured Makes You Evil: Being chained to a wall and left there until he died and became The Snatcher didn't exactly do wonders for his sense of morality. You know the one, the “it will get better, I just have to be patient” mentality tragically held by so many victims of abuse. The best of Van Gogh’s artistic output, however, took place in an environment different from where his depression thrived which made him more intrinsically motivated to produce extraordinary output. Well the director-as-auteur theory really originates in the film criticism surrounding the French New Wave. Mad Scientists rule the world. This is the mentality where even the most tortured of creative genius did their best work. Thus, like Van Gogh, their creative genius was not because of their mental illness but in spite of it. Intrinsic motivation and the environment that it thrives in is not exclusive to a selective group either by genetics or luck. Golgo 13: medical knowledge? When we are stressed out, anxious, miserable, forsaken, or tortured most of our cognitive capital goes to maintaining these negative emotions. But it seems a common theme in movies that there is a dark side to their brilliance. In another episode, he mocks her lipstick, as well as “the size of her mouth and breasts”. Similarly, Reynolds Woodcock exhibits controlling, possessive behavior towards his love interest, Alma, in Phantom Thread. Van Gogh most likely suffered from mental health issues that had limited if any treatment in the late 1800s. Thomas Edison famously said that genius is 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration. Oh and he's the world's deadliest assassins with insane combat skills from hand-to-hand to sniping. Genius Bonuses are most often seen in series with a Direct Demographic, ... a Real Life, underground illustrator who specialized in such family friendly subjects as bondage, rape, torture, dismemberment, and pedophilia, all of this with a voluntarily uncanny style of drawing (his characters often look like puppets). And while it's a blessing, it's also a curse. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Genius is defined as “exceptional intellectual or creative power or other natural ability.” As the definition implies, geniuses have the power to transform, imagine, and most importantly create what is both novel and useful. actual psychological torture Stanley Kubrick inflicted on Shelley Duvall. He tells her when to stop eating, forces her to remove her lipstick on their first date, and lashes out at her for cooking him dinner, screeching that he will not tolerate any break from his patterns and routines. This was the period where he created some of his most famous works such as Starry Night, Still Life: Vase with Irises Against a Yellow Background, and Enclosed Wheat Field with Rising Sun. I understand that it’s entertainment, but does the audience condemn Sherlock for his rude, childish behavior? Not like you really want anyone to understand you anyway. Do you know why I'm afraid? This makes most of us fear the label of creativity because the vast majority of us have nothing to do with and don’t want to be associated with such reckless esoterics. Two topics that have been the epicenter of media attention lately. Tortured Genius, Durban, South Africa. “Genius” is always attached to a modifier and never one that connotes happiness, productivity, or well-being like “content genius”, “productive genius”, “thriving genius”, “effervescent genius” or “mindful genius.” We associate creative genius with terms such as “mad genius”, “insane genius”, “forsaken genius”, “suffering genius”, and “tortured genius.”. Interestingly, Alma eventually begins slowly poisoning Reynolds with mushroom shavings to reclaim her agency by weakening him, leading to another cycle of possession and control from both sides. This idea remains prevalent today, because 30 years of scholarship does not automatically replace hundreds of years of scholarship, but divine madness is no longer the only association with human creativity that we have. Do you think a female character would have gotten the same positive reception? Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The Evil Genius avatar will also automatically go over to gloat at a Super Agent being tortured. Around this time, the word “create” came into the English language in Chaucer’s, The Parson’s Tale, but the word “create” was still attributed to divine intervention. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Her husband was blowing up buildings, killing his rivals, and, you know, producing and selling obscene quantities of crystal meth. It wasn’t until the 1990s that we started to seriously research creativity as a cognitive process we could measure. So let’s get out there and see what we can do! Well, perhaps “saw” is a loose term, because I found myself so irritated with the film that I quietly exited the theater halfway through, along with my friend, fellow PopLurker writer Yennaedo Balloo. Cool and Unusual Punishment: A punishment that gets the job done, even though it's ridiculous. Sherlock leaps to mind because while the titular character is not in a relationship with any particular woman, he is often shown treating women (and men) with disrespect, disdain, or flat-out hostility. He was running an international drug empire, but Skyler was somehow the villain for not wanting to bring that kind of violence and danger into her home. In 2014, a study was conducted into the impact of an artist’s eccentricity and the way their work is perceived because of their eccentricity. It’s been thoroughly documented in article after article that Christian Grey exhibits a laundry list of controlling and abusive behavior towards Ana: isolation, intimidation, control, possessiveness, lack of consent, stalking, etc. Most people can easily communicate and be understood by others. In order to create, they needed to be in environments where they would be intrinsically motivated to work hard, hone their craft, and master their technique. Why does talent or success make a man exempt from basic human decency? That famous story about how Alfred Hitchcock had real birds thrown at Tippi Hedren in The Birds? Some of the greatest minds in history have been tormented. Here are some of the best movies about tortured geniuses, ranked. When this happens, you lose your sense of autonomy control and focus. However, in true adherence to the spirit of the trope, gloating at any captive gives a chance for them to break out immediately, Super Agents especially. July 27, 2017 9:04 AM Subscribe I'm looking for the earliest examples of this particular trope, along with any theories as to why and how it originates and how it relates more broadly to other stereotypes of the anguished creative genius. Change ). Only because he’s so BRILLIANT, obviously. This quote reiterates that genius is not simply the idea that our brains come up with, but the ability to get into the zone where you can do your best work. A “brilliant” man is rarely held accountable for his actions, but a woman is practically crucified for her response. If you follow me on Twitter, you may have seen the rant I went on after seeingThe Phantom Thread in theaters this… Two Years (and then some) Postgrad in Review: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly – Hey, Can You Hear Me? There are several instances where he manipulates and coerces her into sex, enraged by her pleas and excuses. Your head is filled with everything - grand ideas, insufferable worries, and a good deal of angst. IE: He’s an insufferable, entitled jerk who treats everyone around him (particularly women) like shit because he’s so “talented” and “good” at what he does, which makes it okay. This is a trope that’s all too familiar: talented and/or successful man as a quixotic, tortured genius who lashes out and behaves erratically in the name of passion. Can we think, for a moment, about the absolute hell Skyler White went through, seeing the man she married become a murderous, meth-slinging drug lord? … The trope of the tortured artist is thought to have been started by Plato. Equating creative genius with a form of suffering or torture dates back to ancient times when the brightest minds theorized creatvitiy was only bestowed on those who were possessed by the Gods. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Question: Where does the trope of the tortured genius film director originate? But I want to give Sherlock a soft pass so much. You are lucky, Keira, that you can take the medications. This is emotional abuse. Affably Evil: Herb, despite going along with Scarlet's every command, is a rather laid-back cool guy who when ordered to torture the minions in the torture chambers, instead quickly starts goofing around with them and taking pictures around various torture equipment. Sherlock gives her a list of all the reasons her new partner is clearly gay, (not realizing he has been manipulated to think so by Moriarty, but that’s beside the point) with all the tact and sensitivity of a blunt ax. So could we all be creative geniuses? They endure the torment because they want to believe the man (or woman) will change. When you show our Patreon some love, you’re supporting the little guy whose sole mission is to help make your day a little brighter. The fairy tale ending to this film is presented to women as evidence that the sadistic man who stalks her, controls her, and disrespects her requests for independence will change through the power of her love.”. Tortured Genius Lyrics: [Tor, tor tortured Brain, Tor, tor tortured brain / Tortured Brain, Tortured Brain] x 2 / This be the mind of a tortured genius / Rhymes are wrote and tore to pieces / Fly to By editor@pumirror on Feb 12, 2018 PU Mirror. The novel and the useful shift our scientific, artistic, societal, cultural, and paradigms and worldviews. The title character of the story is Miss Agatha Clay, who begins as a young apprentice to a type of Mad Scientist known to the world as a "Spark". During his stay in the asylum, he was more lucid, more comfortable, and more in control of his life and his art. I'm one of those who can't take them. What does the trope of the “tortured genius” tell us about how we view men with even the tiniest shred of power…. This got me thinking about how common this trope is at various levels of pop culture. Some mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, have been said to have helped popular artists with their works. Brilliant in fact. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Intrinsic motivation is behavior that occurs when you are inherently interested in something, and motivated to find a solution for it without any external pressure or reward. I’m published, btw – Hey, Can You Hear Me? Artists Vincent Van Gogh and Mark Rothko. Like Reynolds in Phantom Thread, Sherlock is portrayed as a quixotic, tortured genius, and his behavior is brushed off as a quirky, inevitable side effect of his brilliance. The real torture is the one we enact by classifying people as geniuses, to serve our own fantasies of independence. Vincent Van Gogh is the archetype of the tortured creative genius. Christian has “earned” this kind of patience and understanding merely by virtue of being a wealthy, successful man. E very suicide leaves behind mourners grasping for answers, but when the person in question is a high-profile celebrity known to have struggled with mental health issues, it's tempting to fall back on the age-old trope of the "tortured genius." I once read a surprisingly truthful observation in some bygone Tumblr thread, which stated that Fifty Shades “is only a love story because the guy is rich, if he lived in a trailer park, it would be a horror novel or crime thriller.” Christian’s actions are somehow justified because he’s painted as an unbearably brilliant billionaire with a disturbed past- in other words, a tortured genius. Keep Going, Something Strange and Wonderful Might Happen, 5 Ways To Find Your Inner Picasso: How To Be More Creative At Work, Why Storytelling Is What Will Reunite the World, Physicality, Voice, and Emotion — Your Secret Improv Weapons. This means that until the very recent past, all of the writing and criticism that historians, scientists, and others relied about genius, creativity, and creative geniuses still mostly relied on ancient ideas — promulgated by generations of Romantics — that madness — divine intervention — was the source of all human creativity. Cold-Blooded Torture: Subjecting people to severe pain either for information, as punishment, or out of sadistic pleasure. Our brains are spurred by enjoyment. Van Gogh most likely suffered from mental health issues that had limited if any treatment in the late 1800s. The most important human resource for creative output is cognitive capital — even geniuses have a limit on what their minds can handle. 10 Steve Jobs. Intrinsic motivation shows us that extraordinary output is born from ordinary intentions. If you follow me on Twitter, you may have seen the rant I went on after seeing The Phantom Thread in theaters this week. 7 TV Characters Who Got More Hate Than They Deserved – Hey, Can You Hear Me. We all know examples of creative geniuses that had tragic ends. The genius of these characters can manifest itself in scientific ways, artistic ways or unexpected ways. But please- no more films or TV series about men who think success or skill gives them the right to be an emotionally abusive asshole. Cultivating and maintaining this ordinary mindset is what any genius — even the tortured ones — learned how to do at an extraordinary level. Perhaps the strongest hallmark sign of the abuse in Fifty Shades is the pervasive “he will change” mentality. However, once again, these actions are apparently acceptable because of his “genius” and success.
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