Crawler activity often coincides with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. It effectively kills mealybugs, scale, thrips, beetles, mole crickets, ants, termites, weevils, aphids, chinch bugs, white grubs, and much more! • Insecticidal Sprays. To reduce the chance of injury due to drought stress, water the trees or shrubs well a couple of days before spraying. Most contact insecticides cannot penetrate the waxy covering on scale nymphs and adults, so the crawler stage is the only life stage that these insecticides control. The granular products are applied around the base of the tree or shrub and watered into the soil. Quick scale insect facts. White peach scale on peach limb.Eric R. Day, Virginia Tech University. Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Up close, CMBS is white t… Table 2. Armored Scale Insects Identified on Landscape Plants by the Clemson University Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic in 2012 & 2013. In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… It may take multiple applications to control the armored scales because of the layers of adult scales protecting each other, but the horticultural oil is the most efficient, the safest and the least harmful to beneficial insects. From there, it will be sent to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University for an accurate insect identification. Check plants for live scale infestations. Because of their short residual, they help to conserve beneficial insect species. At least three applications are needed at five- to six-week intervals. Danger to plant – fatal if infested Can be used on ornamentals, roses, flowers, shrubs, trees, fruits, citrus, vegetables. These pests all have needlelike "piercing-sucking" mouthparts that allow them to puncture plant tissue and remove sap or cell contents. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. Plants should be kept as healthy as possible to reduce the chance of scale infestation. Armored Scales (see photo gallery) Pyrethrum is made from chrysanthemum blossoms and is quite effective especially when applied directly to the pest. Scale insects can also be controlled by a soil drench with a product containing dinotefuran. In general, sprays should be applied when temperatures are between 40 and 90 °F. Yates Scale Gun A ready to use insecticide that kills scale, aphids, caterpillars, leafhoppers, mealybug, thrips, whitefly, mites, ants and sooty mould. Scale Insect Control. When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. You do not need to use a lot. A sample of the infested plant material may be taken to the local Clemson Extension Service county office. For application during the dormant season late fall through early spring, apply horticultural oil sprays at 2 to 4% mixture (5 to 10 tablespoons of oil per gallon of water). Spray all affected stems, and on both the tops and bottom of leaves. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. Adult scales may be round, pear-shaped or oyster-shell shaped, but vary somewhat depending on the species. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides: Although soil treatments with common products containing imidacloprid will control some tree and shrub pests, such as soft scales, aphids and white flies, these products do little to control armored scales. Use an azalea and camellia fertilizer for acid-loving plants. Insecticidal soap: contains specially selected soaps (fatty acid salts) that provide effective pest control. Scale adults are the most noticeable stage on plants, and these may be white, gray or brown. In the South where scale produce several generations over a season, periodic sprays are necessary over the whole summer. Neem Oil Soap, Hot Pepper Wax, and Garlic Barrier all have this potential repellent capability when applied properly on the tops and the bottoms of leaves of the target plant. Although they are effective in killing the insects, they also cause great disruption in the life cycles of other "friendly" insects and mites. It is one of the only scales known to infest crape myrtles. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. Dinotefuran can be used in combination with horticultural oil sprays for improved control. Spray biweekly when temperatures average 70 degrees Fahrenheit or higher and monthly in cooler weather to treat scale on sago palms. See Table 2 for examples of horticultural oils for scale control. Pyrethrin kills off insects almost instantly upon contact. Even when sprays are properly timed, repeated applications may be needed if crawler activity extends over time. In fact, treatments with imidacloprid may very well increase populations of spider mites on the plants in the summer. Magnolia scales are one-half inch diameter, pink-orange to brown bumps on the undersides of the twigs. Sevin ® Insect Killer Concentrate kills more than 500 insect pests by contact and keeps protecting for up to three months. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. This can be quite laborious in an outdoor garden, however. Plants under stress are more susceptible to armored scale infestations. Based on which insects you are trying to kill and how bad your infestation is, you will have to dilute the Talstar Professional insecticide with different amounts of water. Neem oil products work by suffocating the insect. If scale insects are not controlled, death of infested plants is possible. Many sap feeding insects, like scales, don’t move around much and may be protected by wax, or by the plant itself, from insecticides … They secrete a waxy protective covering over their body, which makes control difficult. This ensures that the remaining scale are more easily exposed to the product. Acephate (various brands) and imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced … A severe infestation of armored scales may weaken or kill a tree or shrub. The rate of irrigation water should be 1” per application. Use all neem oil products by following the instructions since, as an oil, there is greater risk of … See Table 2 for examples of contact insecticides for scale crawler control. (2.5%), Bonide All Seasons Spray Oil Concentrate (98%), Bonide Insecticidal Soap Multi-purpose Insect Control Conc. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. Go to the Natural Insecticides section … Crawlers are very small and will appear as moving specks of dust. Pour the measured concentrate into your sprayer, add the appropriate amount of water, and mix well. Spray the plants thoroughly, so that the oils drip or “run off” from the upper and under sides of leaves, twigs, and plant stems. For treatment of ornamental plants (e.g., trees, shrubs, flowers), dilute between 0.125 to 1 fl. Table 1. They feed by sucking sap and some can weaken host plants, many excrete a sticky substance (honeydew), which allows the growth of sooty moulds. There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. Tea scale injury on camellia upper leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. Scale-damaged plants look withered and sickly. Water trees and shrubs as needed during periods of no rainfall, which is usually no more than weekly during the growing season and monthly during the winter. Insecticides differ in their effectiveness for certain scale types. sap-sucking pests. If only a portion of the shrub is infested, prune out heavily infested shoots or limbs and promptly dispose of prunings. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. Some armored scales damage only branches, while others infest foliage or fruits. See Table 2 for examples of contact insecticides for scale crawler control. However, systemic products containing dinotefuran will aid in armored scale control. Kills bugs through contact For use on vegetables, fruit trees, ornamentals, shrubs, flowers and gardens Controls Aphids, Mealybugs, Mites, Leafhoppers, Psyllids, Scale Insects, Thrips, Whiteflies and other listed pests For use indoors, outdoors and in greenhouses oz. They can also be found in the garden at the end of spring, during summer, and in the fall. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. @font-face { Flip an adult scale over, and if there is a separate soft body beneath the hard shell, it is an armored scale. Therefore this product is used when the bugger is chomping on the foliage. With good spray coverage, horticultural oil sprays may kill all stages of scales that are present at the time of application, and often give good control as they kill by suffocation. This rate would be 2½ to 5 tablespoons of oil per gallon of water. (47%), Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable, Fruit & Flower Concentrate (2.5%). When the scale insects feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. Treatment involves pouring the mixed insecticide at the base of the plant. Is Neem Oil Spray Safe For Blue Spruce Trees That Have Oyster Shell Scale. Backed by the Ortho® Guarantee. Mulch plants out as far as the drip line of the branches at 3” deep to conserve soil moisture. Only apply Pyrethrin in smaller, spot sprays. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. If possible, time spray applications to coincide with the scale crawler stage, which is most susceptible to all insecticides. Recommended insecticides that are available in homeowner size packaging include acephate, bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, malathion, and cyfluthrin. To control magnolia scale successfully, you must spray the insecticide (for example, malathion or acephate) at the right time in this insect's life cycle (namely, when it is in the crawler stage). Any of the sprayers can be used to apply AzaMax, For more information about AzaMax go to the Yardener's Tool Shed; click here, Control Scale With Light Horticultural Oil, Light horticultural oil kills both live scale insects inside or outside their shells and it will kill their eggs. Evergreen plants can also be treated in the fall, and the majority (approximately three fourths) of the ornamental plant hosts of armored scales identified in the last two years were evergreen plants. Fill in a spray bottle, shake well, and liberally spray all … The liquid product is mixed with water, and slowly poured around the base of the plant. The highly refined oil coats the insect’s breathing pores or egg shell, thereby suffocating it. If the spring foliage is not out yet on a deciduous plant, spray with a horticultural oil spray so that better coverage of the trunk and limbs is possible. Fertilize trees and shrubs approximately mid-March along the coast or April 1st in the upstate with a slow-release tree & shrub fertilizer. Armored scales do not produce honeydew as do soft scales. If any phytotoxicity (damage) occurs on foliage with oil sprays, wait until leaf drop for additional spray applications (in the fall). Other species appear as small, white, waxy blotches or small bits of cotton on leaves and stems. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Chemical Pine Needle Scale Control Dormant oil applied in March to early April can have some impact on the population but insecticidal soaps are even more effective. Most trees and shrubs can tolerate application of horticultural oil even during the summer months. These products are typically found at landscaper supply stores. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. Among the available insecticides, the oil poses the least risk to … . Aside from whiteflies, this insecticide can also protect your flowers, shrubs, and trees from a wide range of other common pests. It has very low toxicity to humans, pets, wildlife and beneficial predators, partly because it has little residual activity on the sprayed plants. Some soft scales may also have a hard covering present, but it will be smooth or with ridges, but no overlapping layers. 4 through 6). However, as with all pesticides, multiple applications may be necessary depending upon the scale species and the degree of infestation. The test (hard covering over the adult armored scales) will often have concentric rings or over-lapping layers. Do not use weed killers, such as weed and feed products, beneath the canopy of trees and shrubs, as this will add another stress factor to the plants. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. Some or all life stages of the scale may be found throughout the year (eggs, crawlers or immatures, nymphs and adults). Heavy scale infestations may require a follow-up spray about 5 or 6 days after each initial spray. Insecticidal soap, made from potassium salt of fatty acids, works by penetrating and destroying the outer shell or membrane of the insect causing it to dehydrate and die. }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }, AzaMax is a natural product with a broad spectrum of pest control and broad plant applications. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. For new plantings, plant trees and shrubs in the proper amount of sunlight for the species, plant at the correct depth, and prepare the soil for best growth. See the Natural Repellents in Yardener's Tool Shed. Horticultural oils are of the highest grade and may be used on tolerant plants during the growing season, but at reduced spray concentrations. AzaMax is an anti-feedant and insect growth regulator which control (kills) pests through starvation and growth disruption within two or three days. Several applications will be necessary to catch all the larvae, but these organic pesticides will not leave a … The repelling effect will last for several weeks to a month depending on the weather conditions. Horticultural Oils: Horticultural oils are safe to use and are especially good choices for sensitive areas, such as where people are present soon after treatment. Crape myrtle bark scale is relatively easy to identify. As winters have become warmer in recent years additional insect pests may have extended their range more northward into South Carolina from Florida and coastal Georgia. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. per gallon of water (3.7 – 29.5 ml per 3.75 liters). Neem oil spray is an effective way to kill scale insects on plant To get rid of scale on plants, mix two teaspoons of organic neem oil and a teaspoon of Castile soap with a 1 quart (1 l) of lukewarm water. See the product label for protective clothing and protective equipment that should be used. As a last resort, a much stronger azdirachtin product may help tip the scales in your favor (so to speak). In fact, treatments with imidacloprid may very well increase populations of spider … Name – Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Diaspididae Lifespan – up to a year (dormant in winter) Size – from 1/16 th to 1/4 th inch (1-5mm). Each species has a different host range and life cycle. Heavily infested plants produce little new growth. Make sure to scrape off all the scale packets you can before you spray. New needle growth on Eastern hemlocks is sensitive to horticultural oil sprays until the needles mature. They may also have sticky sap or a black fungus on the leaves and stems. Leaves turn yellow and may drop from the plant. Pyrethrum is made from chrysanthemum blossoms and is quite effective especially when applied directly to the pest. Try using a product like AzaMax, which is derived from neem oil naturally, inside greenhouses or indoor growing areas. If you need an insecticide to treat cycad scale, try horticultural oil. More armored scale samples on ornamentals were submitted from the coastal areas of South Carolina than from the rest of the state probably due to the milder winter weather there (see Table 1 for scale insects identified). The presence of crawlers can sometimes be determined by sharply tapping an infested twig on a piece of white paper. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact, Four Fragrant, Winter-blooming Woodland Shrubs, Integrated Pest Management (I.P.M.) It also disrupts cell membranes in the insect’s body. Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. Pesticides that can be applied to the soil beneath a plant and transported in the xylem sap tissue can reach pests that are otherwise hard to kill. Insecticide Active Ingredients & Products Labeled for Control of Armored Scale Insects in Residential Landscapes. See Table 1 for products. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides: Although soil treatments with common products containing imidacloprid will control some tree and shrub pests, such as soft scales, aphids and white flies, these products do little to control armored scales. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Refer to the product label for guidelines on plant sensitivity and any temperature restrictions. The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. Maintain plant vigor, but do not over-fertilize trees and shrubs, as this can lead to increased scale problems. font-family: "Cambria"; See Table 2 for examples of soil applied products for armored scale control. The nozzle allows you to select a narrow, direct stream or a wider spray pattern. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at or 1-888-656-9988. The crawler emergence can be monitored with double-faced tape wrapped around a branch, or by putting an infested shoot or leaf into a baggie and watch for crawler movement. Some of the most commonly encountered arthropod pests found on plants are those that feed on plant juices, i.e. imidacloprid, a popular systemic insecticide (discussed below), controls soft scales and certain other scales but does not control armored scales or cottony cushion scale. Sevin® Insect Killer Ready to Use is ideal for target spot treatments of specific plants or small garden areas. + Kill and control unwanted insects in ornamental and edible gardens, lawns and other areas around your home. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. for Cabbage Looper, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, California Red Scale & False oleander Scale, Bonide Systemic Insect Control Concentrate (9.4%), Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate; & RTS, Bayer Advanced Carpenter Ant & Termite Killer Plus Conc. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. Use contact insecticides such as carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids only as a last resort in scale control. Scale insects feeding on the plant's sap can cause stunted growth, yellowish discoloration of the foliage, branch dieback, or death of the plant. Twenty four different armored scales were identified on residential landscape plants. Neem oil soap is a natural insecticide that will kill scale on contact and then repel new arrivals for about 2 weeks. Adult tea scales on lower camellia leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. Scale insects are generally small (1/4 inch long or less) and often mimic various plant parts, such as bark and buds. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. However, with some scale insects there may be overlapping generations with an extended crawler emergence period. For information about this product go to Yardener's Tool Shed and check out. Failure of contact sprays to work often results from not timing the applications to coincide with crawler activity. A more dilute spray is applied when foliage is present on some sensitive plants to not cause injury. Spray light hort oil in the spring, when the scale nymphs (“crawlers”) are still exposed. Neem oil soap is a natural insecticide that will kill scale on contact and then repel new arrivals for about 2 weeks. How to Treat Scales on Trees. Kills bugs through contact: controversialists, mealybugs, mites, leafhopper, ellipsoids scale insects, thrips, whiteflies and other listed pests. In general, avoid using contact insecticides as much as possible as they will often kill the naturally occurring enemies of scale insects. For more information on planting, see HGIC 1050, Choosing a Planting Location, HGIC 1052, Planting Shrubs Correctly, and HGIC 1001, Planting Trees Correctly. Examples of sucking pests include aphids, scales, mites, leafhoppers and plant bugs. Kills mosquitoes and other listed nuisance insects. Follow fertilizer label directions for rate. On new growth and in heavy infestations, the scales may be distributed more uniformly on the branch (Figs. To reduce the chance of killing pollinating insects, make pesticide applications when shrubs and trees are not in bloom, and always spray in the early evening. The magnolia scale is an occasional and widely scattered pest problem in Iowa on magnolia trees and shrubs. Contact Insecticides: For safety reasons, one must be very careful when spraying contact insecticides upward onto tall shrubs and trees. Pyrethrin is an insecticide that kills a wide range of insect pests including ants, mosquitoes, moths, flies and fleas. Yates White Oil Insecticide Concentrate Blocks the breathing pores of insects causing suffocation and rapid death. There are several natural insect repellents that often kill scale on contact before they build their hard shells early in the season, but then will create a bad taste for the critter and make it go someplace else to munch. Tall trees are difficult to treat, but smaller landscape trees and shrubs can be sprayed during the growing season with 1 to 2% horticultural oil. If additional control is needed (beyond the use of horticultural oil sprays), apply one of these products in the spring as new growth appears. Insecticidal soaps can be used to kill scale at the larval stage, but they are not very effective once the insects are anchored and feeding under their protective shells. Euonymus scale on foliage.John A. Weidhass, Virginia Tech University. When the scale feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. Many armored scales are serious pests of ornamental shrubs, trees, groundcovers and turfgrasses in South Carolina. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2012 | Updated: Jan 25, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF). For most small landscape trees and shrubs, apply these spray applications when new leaves start to expand in the spring. However, during high heat and humidity, coupled with drought, some trees, such as maples are sensitive to oil applications. Scale insects like mealybugs are among the most common parasites on indoor plants.. Several lady beetles and wasps are important pests of scale, so reduced use of non-specific pesticides is recommended to encourage these insects. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Kills aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, mosquitoes, red spider mites and scales. Even better, it works against spider mites, aphids, leafhoppers… Systemic insecticide kill insects such as aphids, whiteflies, miners, scales…on trees, flowers and shrubs, from inside the plant. Go to the Natural Insecticides section in Yardener’s Tool Shed for details on each product. One treatment will last for a year. Rubbing alcohol can kill scale insects if the infestations are light. Scale insects look more like tiny, immobile bumps growing on parts of the tree, rather than actual insects. These insects are more vulnerable to sprays at that particular time in their life cycle than at other periods, and that time is generally late summer. Easy to apply with Ortho® Dial 'N Spray® or tank sprayer. GardenTech ® brand offers several products to kill scale insects by contact and keep protecting for up to three months. Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect.
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